India as a nation is faced with massive problem of unemployment. The problem of unemployment has become a colossal. Various factors have caused this problem. There are individual factors like age, vocational unfitness and physical disabilities which restrict the people. External factors include technological and economic factors. There is enormous increase in the population. Every year India adds to her population afresh. Every year more than 5 million people become eligible for securing jobs. Business field is subject to ups and downs of trade cycle and globalisation. Economic depression or sick industries are often closed down compelling their employees to become unemployed. Technological advancement contributes to economic development. But unplanned and uncontrolled growth of technology is causing havoc in job opportunities. The computerisation and automation has led to technological unemployment. Strikes and lockouts have become inseparable aspect of the industrial world today. Due to this industries often face economic loses and production comes down. Since workers do not get any salary or wages during the strike period they suffer from economic hardships. They become permanently or temporarily unemployed.
Today young people are not ready to take jobs which are considered to be socially degrading or lowly. Our educational system has its own irreparable defects and its contribution to the unemployment is an open truth. Our education does not prepare the minds of young generation to become self-employed on the contrary it makes them dependent on government vacancies which are hard to come. Our state right from the beginning of the Five Year Plans has introduced several employment generating schemes and programmes over the years but in the absence of proper implementation and monitoring have failed to achieve the required targets.
The UPA Government has come up with Rural Employment Guarantee Programme which aims to provide employment to people living in the villages. This is a laudable programme if implemented sincerely because it will provide employment to people during natural calamities like drought, floods etc. The remedial measures for reducing unemployment may lay greater emphasis on creation of opportunities for self-employment, augmentation of productivity and income levels of the working poor, shift in emphasis from creation of relief type of employment to the building up of durable productive assets in the rural areas and instead of attempting to revert somewhat to protectionist policies the pace of privatisation may be accelerated.
The problem of unemployment means the problem of providing work to those who are willing to work. A large number of educated and uneducated people, who are capable of work and are also willing to do it, roam here and there without any job. So the problem of unemployment is involuntary joblessness. In our country this problem has assumed an acute form. There are a large number of people who are either partly employed or wholly unemployed. The lives of such people, as well as of their families, are extremely miserable. India cannot claim to be a welfare state so long as this problem remains unsolved.
Since the problem of unemployment is mainly an economic one it is essential, therefore, that the economic policy of the country be overhauled. In our country, labour is available in abundance. We should provide avenues for employment for them through cottage and small-scale industries. Besides this, stress must be laid on family planning. Every effort must be made to check the rapid rise in population. This will help a great deal in the solution of this problem. More stress should be laid on technical and vocational education. The present bookish education which produces clerks alone should be restricted. When people get technical and vocational education, they will not hanker after services on completing their education. They will come out well
Our country cannot advance economically, politically, or socially, unless the problem of unemployment is solved. Many a social evil is spread through the unemployed. Frustration, drug-addiction, even suicides are, by and large, the evil results of unemployment. Unrest and disorder increase in society. It is, therefore, the duty of the Government to make every possible effort to solve this problem. However, we may stress again that the problem cannot be solved till the population explosion is not checked. The two are closely inter-linked, and the people must be made to realise this through an adequate process of social education.
(The writer can be contacted at Rly. Qtrs. No. N-423-A, Central Colony, Post: New Bongaigaon, Dist: Bongaigaon, Email ID: firstname.lastname@example.org)
By Mithun Dey
Article from The Organiser